Science and Orthodoxy vs. Evolution and Progressive Creationism
"The theory of evolution is a theory universally accepted not because it can be proven true, but because the alternative, special creation, is clearly incredible." (D.M.S. Watson, Nature Vol. 123). Watson was the Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy at University College, London from 1921 to 1951.
(Note by me: The theory of evolution has never been universally accepted. Further, it is because of an anti-supernatural bias that evolution is so widely held).
Modernists and unbelievers who claim to be Orthodox, but are not fully convinced of our faith, should not use the canard that young earth creationism (YEC) comes from Protestants. This is the informal fallacy of false cause (non causa pro causa). No, young earth creationism comes from Holy Scripture and the Holy Fathers of Orthodox Christian Tradition. If you do not believe in YEC, you are not Orthodox.
The Orthodox faith is a system of beliefs. To be Orthodox means we accept the whole package. We are not at liberty to pick and choose. Any member of the Orthodox Church that accepts evolution or progressive creationism, is only an external member, but not fully converted in their heart. I will show from the traditional and historical teachings of the Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church, that evolution and progressive creationism are absolutely impossible. The Holy Fathers were young earth creationists. There is something fundamentally wrong with the heart and soul of a person who contradicts the Holy Fathers; such a man should never be ordained, for he lacks the requisite discernment, humility, and obedience, so has no business guiding souls. A priest and bishop should be the embodiment of piety and faithfulness to Tradition and Scripture. Canon 19 of the Council of Trullo (692) states that Christians are not to interpret Scripture contrary to the interpretation of the Holy Fathers. The Fathers believed that Scripture teaches young earth creationism.
Saints Basil, Ephraim the Syrian and John Chrysostom believed the six days of creation were literal twenty-four hour days. (Genesis, Creation and Early Man, p. 401).
St. Basil said about the First Day: "There was evening and morning." This means the space of a day and a night..."And there was evening and morning, one day." Why did he say "one" and not "first"?...He said "one" because he was defining the measure of day and night and combining the time of a night and a day, since the twenty-four hours fill up the interval of one day, if, of course, night is understood with day." (St. Basil, Hexaemeron 2:8, pp. 33-34).
St. John Chrysostom condemned the view that all of Genesis is allegorical. He said those who want to make it all allegorical are trying to destroy our faith. (Genesis, Creation and Early Man, 337).
St. Ephraim the Syrian: "So let no one think that there is anything allegorical in the works of the six days. No one can rightly say that the things pertaining to these days were symbolic, nor can anyone say that they were meaningless names or that other things were symbolized for us by their names." (Oden, Louth, Ancient Christian Commentary on Sacred Scripture, Old Testament, Vol.1, Genesis 1-11p. 9).
St. Ephraim the Syrian regards the days of Creation Week as natural days. (see Commentary on Day 1, as quoted in "Genesis, Creation and Early Man", p. 101).
St. Basil regarded the first day as setting the standard for the natural day. (see Hexaemeron, Homily 2, Chapter 8, as quoted in "Genesis, Creation and Early Man," p. 401).
St. Ambrose on twenty-four hour days. (Hexaemeron, Homily 1, as quoted in Genesis, Creation and Early Man, p. 401 (editors note).
Saints Gregory of Nyssa, Jerome and Gregory the Great believed that God created the world in six natural days. (according to Ruffini, Cardinal Ernesto, The Theory of Evolution Judged By Reason and Faith, pp. 68-69).
Blessed Augustine taught the literal interpretation of Genesis. (Book 1, Chapter 16).
In 1909 the Pontifical Biblical Commission rejected the idea that the first three chapters in Genesis "contain allegories" and symbols destitute of any foundation in objective reality but presented under the garb of history for the purpose of inculcating religious and philosophical truth. (Warkulwiz, The Doctrines of Genesis 1-11, p. 165, citing Denzinger, Enchiridion Symbolorum no 2122).
"The great majority of the Fathers interpreted Genesis 1-11 in its plain sense." (Warkulwiz, p. 3) and that the world is only several thousand years old (ibid).
"The literal and obvious sense of Genesis 1-11 was held by all Christians and Jews until the time of so-called enlightenment in the eighteenth century"... (ibid).
The Fathers unanimously understood Genesis 1-11 as a literal-historical document. (see Warkulwiz, p. 31).
"In 1909 the Pontifical Biblical Commission rejected arguments that deny the literal-historical nature of Genesis 1-3." (DZ, no. 2121). The PBC also rejected claims that the accounts "contain legends, historical in part and fictional in part, composed freely for the instruction and edification of souls." (ibid).
"Catholic scientists and scholars must reject the theory of evolution because a genuine Catholic theology of creation cannot accommodate it." (Warkulwiz, p. 8).
"The notion of an earth billions of years old, which is espoused by Catholic theistic evolutionists, has had a numbing effect on the faith of youth. (Warkulwiz, p. 9).
"The Fathers of the Church were familiar with the Greek atomists' idea of the universe being formed over aeons of time by natural forces, and they promptly rejected it." (Warkulwiz, p. 10).
"None of the Fathers of the Church believed in an ancient universe." (Warkulwiz, p. 189).
Except for Augustine (who believed everything was created at once, either actually or potentially), the Church Fathers unanimously believed that the earth was created in six natural days. (ibid, 197).
Bonaventure (1274) and his mentor, Alexander Hales (1245) held to six literal days of creation. (Warkulwiz, p. 423).
Ancient Jews believed the world was a few thousand years old. (see Warkulwiz, p. 191).
Pope Pius XII said that the first eleven chapters of Genesis "pertain to history in a true sense." (Humani generis).
"evolution of species...has no support whatsoever from Scripture or Tradition." (Warkulwiz, 127).
"The Fathers believed in the permanence of the kinds." (Warkulwiz, 134).
Blessed Augustine believed that the world was less than 6,000 years old at the time he lived (City of God 12:10, p. 232).
St. Theophilus (A.D. 115-181), sixth bishop of Antioch, and Julius Africanus (A.D. 200-245), believed that the world was 5,530 years old. (Theophilus,"To Autolycus," in "Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. 2, pp. 118-21; Julius Africanus,"Five Books of Chronology," in "Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol.6, pp. 130-38).
The common Byzantine Christian reckoning (derived from the Septuagint), placed the date of creation at 5,508 B.C. (Genesis, Creation and Early Man, p. 236).
Russia inherited from the Byzantines the Orthodox Calendar based on the creation era. The date for the creation of the world was used by the Russians as the starting point for their empire. (see Riasanovsky, A History of Russia, p. 244).
Fr. Seraphim Rose writes: "even the most mystical Fathers" such as St. Isaac the Syrian accepted without question the common understanding of the Church that the world was created "more or less" in 5,500 B.C. (Genesis, Creation and Early Man, p. 236).
"Jewish cabalists, who look for secret codes in the Bible and who believe in creation by emanation, have long maintained that only children and the simple-minded should be encouraged to believe in a literal six natural day period of creation." (Warkulwiz, p. 193).
ADAM AND EVE
"The Fathers of the Church believed the Genesis account of the creation of Eve literally, although they sometimes superimposed allegorical interpretations on it. The creation of Eve from the side of Adam is so strongly affirmed in Magisterial teaching"... (Warkulwiz, 262).
"The Fathers and Doctors of the Church and all the popes, bishops and faithful for nineteen centuries believed that God created Adam immediately from the dust of the earth." (Warkulwiz, 234).
St. Basil said that God made Adam directly from the earth to distinguish him from animals. (On the Origin of Man 2:4, as quoted in Genesis, Creation and Early Man, p. 159).
Adam was created from the earth according to Saints Irenaeus, Cyril of Jerusalem, Gregory of Nyssa, Cyril of Alexandria, John Damascene, Ephraim, Tertullian, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine. (See Rufini, Cardinal Ernesto, The Theory of Evolution Judged by Reason and Faith, pp. 124-129).
St. Cyril of Jerusalem: "Eve was begotten of Adam and not conceived of a mother"...(Oden, Louth, Ancient Christian Commentary on Sacred Scripture, Old Testament, Vol.1, Genesis 1-11p. 67).
St. Ephraim believed Eve was already inside Adam when God removed his rib. (ibid, p. 36).
St. Ambrose said God created Eve from the body of Adam. (Warkulwiz, p. 270).
Theodoret of Cyr taught that God made Eve from Adam. (Warkulwiz, 270).
St. John Chryosostom said Adam and Eve lived like angels. (Eight Homilies on Genesis 8:4, quoted in Genesis, Creation and Early Man, p. 151).
1909 Pontifical Biblical Commission: "the fall of our first parents from their primitive state of innocence," and "the promise of a future Redeemer" are things in Genesis that must be be taken in the "literal and historical sense" because they "pertain to the foundations of the Christian religion." (Warkulwiz, p. 321).
1909 Pontifical Biblical Commission stated that the temptation of Eve by the devil "under the guise of the serpent "must be taken in "the literal and historical sense." (Denzinger, Enchiridion Symbolorum no 2123).
St. John Damascene wrote of "our first parents." ( Oden, Louth, Ancient Christian Commentary on Sacred Scripture, Old Testament, Vol.1, Genesis, 1-11 p. 17).
Pope Pius II in 1459 condemned the notion that Adam was not the first man. Pope Pius XII in 1950 condemned polygenism. (Warkulwiz, p. 343).
Blessed Augustine: "in the very beginning Adam and Eve were the parents of all peoples." (Quoted by Warkulwiz from Jurgens, The Faith of the Early Fathers, no. 1813).
Theodoret of Cyr: "the myriads of tribes [came] from one couple." (Quoted by Warkulwiz from Jurgens, The Faith of the Early Fathers, no 2147).
Sirach: [Adam was honored] "above every living being in creation." (49:16).
Book of Wisdom: "Wisdom protected the first formed father of the world, when he alone had been created; she delivered him from his transgression, and gave him strength to rule all things." (10:1).
The view that Eve was literally taken from Adam's rib was held by such notable saints as John Chrysostom, Ambrose, Ephraim the Syrian and Cyril of Jerusalem. (for quotes and sources see: Genesis, Creation and Early Man, by Fr. Seraphim Rose).
Pope Pelagius I (died 4 March 561) said that the first woman was created "from the rib of the man." (Denzinger, Enchiridion Symbolorum no 228a).
In 1909 the Pontifical Biblical Commission said that the literal-historical sense is to be adhered to in regard to "the formation of the first woman from the first man." (ibid, no. 2123).
All the Holy Fathers, even St. Seraphim of Sarov, believed that Eve came from Adam’s rib.
The historical Adam is affirmed by Ante-Nicene Pope St. Clement of Rome (r. 88–99), Pseudo-Clement, St. Ignatius of Antioch, The Epistle of Barnabas, St. Justin Martyr, Pseudo–Justin and ancient Pagan testimonies, St. Theophilus of Antioch, St. Irenæus of Lyons, St. Hippolytus of Rome. (for quotes and sources see the upcoming book "Thou art Dust: Recovering the Catholic Doctrine of the Origin of Adam’s Body," by the Kolbe Center).
Popes from Pelagius I up to Leo XIII and Pius X have explicitly taught that Adam and Eve had no parents but that Adam was made immediately from the earth and Eve immediately from Adam's side. There is no evolution here.
There is now abundant genetic data that supports the existence of a literal Adam and Eve. (Mortenson, et al. Searching for Adam; Sanford and Carter, God, Family and Genetics--a Biblical Perspective, Part 1 in Genetic Evidences Supporting The Divine Origin of Man and Family (2016); Published in Proceedings of the Symposium at Rome "The Two Shall Become One" at The Creation of Adam and Eve as the Foundation of the Church's Teaching on Holy Marriage. Human Life International; Part 2 in Genetic Evidences Refuting the Evolution of Man and Family (2016) published in Proceedings of the Symposium at Rome).
All the Mitochondrial chromosomes in the world are nearly identical and trace back to a single woman known as "Mitochondrial Eve."
Further, the studies indicate that this Mitochondrial Eve lived just thousands of years ago.
EVOLUTION MAKES GOD THE AUTHOR OF DEATH, INSTEAD OF THE DEVIL
God as the author of death suggests a strong dualist tendency in God. Process and dualism always seem to go hand it hand.
Holy Writing teaches that God imposed death as punishment for the transgression. (Gen. 2:17; 3:19)."For God made no death." (Wisdom 1:13). "But by the envy of the devil came death into the world." (Wisdom 2:24). "By one man sin entered into the world and death by sin." (Romans 5:12). "From the woman came the beginning of sin, and by her we all die." (Ecclesiasticus 25:33; Cf. 1Tim. 2:14; Rom. 5:12 et seq; John 8:44).
St. John of Damascus: "He who once assumed the appearance of a malignant serpent and implanted death in the creation, is now cast into darkness by Christ's coming in the flesh." (Mother Mary and Kallistos Ware, trans, The Festal Menaion, p. 134).
BELIEF IN EVOLUTION IS DANGEROUS
Pope Leo XIII warned that false science could prove fatal in destroying the principles of true philosophy in young minds. (see Providentissimus Deus).
"The notion of an earth billions of years old, which is espoused by Catholic theistic evolutionists, has had a numbing effect on the faith of youth. (Warkulwiz, p. 9).
"Evangelical students are leaving the church in alarming numbers. You might know a few, maybe someone in your family. One reason for this is science, biological evolution in particular. " (Denis Lamoureux, Four Views on the Historical Adam). Here is an example of a top theistic evolutionist admitting that evolution causes people to lose faith. He cites a Barna Group study.
The theory of evolution was the foundational belief of Hitler and Stalin. Karl Marx dedicated his book "Das Kapital" to Charles Darwin.
RECOMMENDED BOOKS FOR YOUNG EARTH CREATIONISM
The Biblical Basis for Modern Science, by Henry Morris;
Evidence for a Young World (Creation Ex Nihilo, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 28-31, by Russelll Humphreys);
The Young Earth, by John Morris;
In The Minds of Men, by Ian Taylor;
In Six Days: Why Fifty Scientists Choose to Believe in Creation, by John Ashton;
Genesis, Creation and Early Man, by Fr. Seraphim Rose.
BOOKS ON THE PROBLEMS WITH RADIOMETRIC DATING
God At Ground Zero, by Curt Sewell;
Bones of Contention: A Creationist Assessment of Human Fossills (see relevant Appendix);
The Real History of Dinosaurs, by Mace Baker;
The Mythology of Modern Dating Methods, by John Woodmorappe.
BOOKS AGAINST EVOLUTION
Biological Evolutionism, by Constantine Cavarnos;
Genesis, Creation and Early Man, by Fr. Seraphim Rose;
The Chronicles of the Beginning, by Father Daniel Sysoev;
In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood (8th Edition), by Brown;
Refuting Evolution, by Sarfati;
Abusing Theology: Howard Van Till's 'Forgotten Doctrine of Creation's Functional Integrity,' in "Origins & Design, vol. 19, no. 1 (1986). (This work refutes the claim that the teachings of St. Basil and Blessed Augustine are compatible with evolutionism).
The Doctrines of Genesis 1-11: A Compendium and Defense of Traditional Catholic Theology on Origins, by Warkulwiz. (Catholic work);
A Catholic Assessment of Evolution Theory, by Wynne (Catholic work);
Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, by Denton;
Darwin On Trial, By Johnson (3Rd Edition);
Origins (Video Series), by A.E. Wilder Smith;
Undeniable: How Biology Confirms Our Intuition That Life Is Designed, By Axe;
Darwin's Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution, by Behe;
Not By Chance! Shattering The Modern Theory of Evolution, by Spetner;
The Natural Sciences Know Nothing of Evolution, by A.E. Wilder Smith;
The Scientific Alternative to Neo-Darwinian Evolutionary Theory, by A.E. Wilder Smith;
See Biologic Institute (led by Douglas Axe), Answers in Genesis, Institute For Creation Research and Creation.com.
More than 1,000 PhD scientists have signed a statement agreeing they "are skeptical of claims for the ability of random mutation and natural selection to account for the complexity of life." (see "A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism" http://www.dissentfromdarwin.org/).
Jonathan Sarfati (PhD in chemistry): “For evolution to be true, there would have been innumerable transitional forms between different types of creatures. Therefore, for every known fossil species, many more must have existed to connect it to its ancestors and descendents [sic]. This is yet another example of evolutionary conclusions coming before the evidence. Really, the claim is an implicit admission that large numbers of transitional forms are predicted, which heightens the difficulty for evolutionists, given how few there are that even they could begin to claim were candidates. . . .
Evolutionists believe that mutation provides new information for selection. But no known mutation has ever increased genetic information, although there should be many examples observable today if mutation/selection were truly adequate to explain the goo-to-you theory. . . .
Adaptation and natural selection are biological facts; amoeba-to-man evolution is not. Natural selection can only work on the genetic information present in a population of organisms--it cannot create new information. For example, since no known reptiles have genes for feathers, no amount of selection will produce a feathered reptile. Mutations in genes can only modify or eliminate existing structures, not create new ones. If in a certain environment a lizard survives better with smaller legs, or no legs, then varieties with this trait will be selected for. This might more accurately be called devolution, not evolution. . . .
Note that even if such a mutation were ever discovered, evolutionists would still need to find hundreds more to give their theory the observational boost it desperately needs.”
SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE FOR YOUNG CREATIONISM
1. Decay of Earth's magnetic field.
2. Influx of radiocarbon into the earth system.
3. Growth of oldest living part of biosphere.
4. Efflux of Helium-4 into the atmosphere.
5. Formation of river deltas.
6. Decay of short period comets.
7. Petroleum and natural gas pressures.
8. Recession of the Moon.
9. Pleochroic halos.
Scientists concede that their most cherished theories are based on embarrassingly few fossil fragments and that huge gaps exist in the fossil record."(Time Magazine, Nov. 7, 1977)."The evolutionary establishment fears creation science, because evolution itself crumbles when challenged by evidence. In the 1970s and 1980s, hundreds of public debates were arranged between evolutionary scientists and creation scientists. The latter scored resounding victories, with the result that, today, few evolutionists will debate. Isaac Asimov, Stephen Jay Gould, and the late Carl Sagan, while highly critical of creationism, all declined to debate."(Dr. James Perloff, Tornado in a Junkyard (1999), p. 241)" I doubt if there is any single individual within the scientific community who could cope with the full range of [creationist] arguments without the help of an army of consultants in special fields."(David M. Raup, "Geology and Creation," Bulletin of the Field Museum of Natural History, Vol. 54, March 1983, p. 18)."As we survey all the evidence, the thought insistently arises that some supernatural agency--or, rather, Agency--must be involved. Is it possible that suddenly, without intending to, we have stumbled upon scientific proof of the existence of a Supreme Being? Was it God who stepped in and so providentially crafted the cosmos for our benefit?"(Astronomer George Greenstein, "The Symbiotic Universe," page 27).